Types of loans. The guide to know them ALL

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Often, especially when it comes to the creation of new companies, we tend to resort to the search for financing through more traditional methods: bank financing. However, in the financial market, there is a multitude of types of loans that many of us probably have not heard of until now. Throughout this post, we tell you each and every one of them.

 

Definition of loan

When we talk about loans we refer to the action of lending or giving another person a specific amount of money or a specific good- get deal. All this for a period of time (called term) previously stipulated by the loan contract and by which the figures of lender and borrower are established. In this type of financial operations, the second will be forced to return the loaned to the first in exchange for an interest rate also fixed. It is important to say here that we should not be confused with online credits since they are a totally different financial product.

 

Types of loans

Types of loans

As we can imagine, the types of loans are many and varied, since there may be a large number of characteristics or types … Thus, the criteria for classifying loan operations will be several:

Types of loans according to destination

That is if the loans are intended for one or another thing. Here we can find consumptive loans – loans dedicated to consumption – and productive loans, dedicated to the production of goods and services. These, in turn, can be divided into:

  • loans derived to the operation or current.
  • investment loans (destined to the investment of fixed assets).

Types of loans according to the guarantee

If it is loans with a personal guarantee or on the contrary, they do not have it. We see here:

  • Loans with a personal guarantee (not to be confused with loans or personal loans), which are granted solely based on the creditworthiness of the borrower or a third party with the role of guarantor.
  • Loans with a real guarantee: A certain asset (whether movable or immovable) is established as a guarantee. Within it, we find loans with mortgage collateral and loans with collateral security (whereas collateral and payment support, a piece of furniture given in pledge is established).

Types of loans according to the term of maturity

This is one of the most well-known criteria for all of us and we pay more attention when classifying a loan. The loans that we can find within it are:

  1. Short term (loans that do not exceed the year).
  2. Medium term (loans whose amortization is between twelve and three years).
  3. Long-term (maturity term exceeding three years).

Types of loans according to the interest rate

There are two types of loans according to this criterion:

  • loans with a fixed interest rate: during the whole life of the operation
  • variable interest loans: in which the interest rate may be different from the initial.

In any case, this is a fundamental criterion to which we must attend at the time of signing the commercial loan contract since depending on this the cost of financing will vary greatly.

Types of loans according to the beneficiary

We can meet with:

  • Private loans: granted to individuals by private individuals and legal entities
  • public loans: those granted by public institutions This type of loans tend to have a very low-interest rate since, on many occasions, these loans are propelled by aid schemes for certain groups or sectors.

Types of loans according to the lender

According to the lender we find:

  • loans with a single lender: in which the individual or legal entity that lends their money is only one
  • Syndicated loans: where the amount requested is granted by several financial institutions

Types of loans according to the form of instrumentation

Here there are three types of loans:

  1. Loans in mercantile policy: those that need to be documented in mercantile policy intervened by Corredor de Comercio.
  2. Loans in financial effects: unlike in the previous case, they are documented in bills of exchange where the lender accepts the bill of exchange for the amount of the credit owed.
  3. Public deed loans: they are usually the most common. They are authorized by a notary, especially when mortgage guarantees are required.

Types of loans according to the amortization system

It is the last of the criteria, and within it, we find four types:

  1. A loan with interest settlement and the return of capital at maturity.
  2. Loan for constant installments: it is usually the most common and in each installment the amounts composed of capital and interest accrued up to the moment are paid.
  3. Loans for constant capital installments but with the settlement of interest payable after each period on the outstanding capital.
  4. Loans for increasing installments (principal and interest).

As in the interest rate, it is important to pay attention to the clauses relating to this criterion when signing the loan contract.

 

Types of loans: infographics

 

Other types of loans

Other types of loans

In addition to all the loans that we have already named, there are many others that we will name below and of which we will give a few small brushstrokes.

Mortgage loan

It is a banking product – a loan – that allows the borrower (a client who receives the amount) to receive a certain amount of money from a credit institution, thereby assuming certain payment obligations among others. This type of loans has intrinsic a personal guarantee of payment (the obligation that as a borrower is obtained) and a real guarantee consisting of the mortgage of a real estate, which implies that if the client does not return the stipulated amount to the bank, it can stay with the home subject to mortgage thus becoming the owner of it.

What kind of interest do they have? In this case, the interest rate is much lower than that of loans of cash, for example, and it is important to remember that the loan requested may never exceed 80% of the value of the home used as collateral, so in many cases it will be necessary to complement it with another type of financing such as non-bank loans.

Participatory loan

It is a financial instrument consisting of the granting of a loan agreed with a financial institution in which other entities participate at the same time. It is, therefore, an intermediate financial instrument between the social capital to which any company can resort and the financial liability. This type of loan is used by companies at certain times to favor their financial structure as it is a hybrid between a traditional loan and venture capital investments.

How does it work? Financial entities are granting financing to the applicant companies as they achieve certain objectives set in the business plan.

What kind of interest do you have? It is a long-term loan that may even have the possibility of a shortage (depending on the achievement or not of business milestones). The interest rate of this loan is usually mixed since they usually have a fixed part and a variable interest part (which will depend on the indicators of the economic sector to which they belong).

One of the peculiarities of this type of financing of companies is that at the time of signing the contract can stipulate a final date in which the financial institution with which the loan is contracted, can convert the loan into a percentage of the company -actions of the company-.

These loans are granted to companies that have an innovative character, so being beneficiaries of this type of loans can improve the image of the company.

Inter-company loan

These are loans or credits in which a professional (employer) lends to another a certain amount of money in the normal development of their work activity. This type of loans is therefore linked to loans of circulating necessary for the correct development of the daily tasks of the company. The interest rate for this type of financing is generally, in general terms, less expensive than in the case of bank financing since the figure of a lender is acquired by an individual.

Loans through Crowdlending

Also known as loans between individuals or P2P loans. It is, as its name suggests, a type of non-bank loan – it does not require banking intervention – in the companies (or individuals) receive funding funded through private investors who trust their project in exchange for a certain type of interest/profitability. All this process is managed through Crowdlending’s online investment platforms.

Interest on Crowdlending loans is much lower than other project financing alternatives.

And you? Why type of loan do you opt for? Do not think twice and apply for your loan through Crowdlending!

 

Alejandro Suárez: "90% of SMEs go bankrupt in their first three years of life"

His businesses are developed around the Internet and New Technologies, although he is also a private investor in the Biotechnology and Media sector. Without a doubt, Alejandro Suárez Sanchez-Ocaña is an entrepreneur by birth. On January 12, he launched his latest book It’s time to start your business, in which he encourages entrepreneurs not to throw in the towel and explains the keys to start a business, but, above all, focuses on laying the foundations to consolidate the existing one.

The latest study conducted by Ocio Networks, and in which you collaborate, reveals that 62.3% of Catalans would choose to start their own company, but only 27.6% would know how to do it without outside help. What is failing?
The truth is that this does not only happen in Catalonia. They are data very similar to those of the rest of Spain. And, in general, there is a very serious information problem. The administration does not communicate well with citizens. Everything that is not behind a large advertising campaign does not reach society.

Why this misinformation?
A few years ago there was no interest in encouraging the creation of new companies. Now, it seems that they want to promote it very quickly without thinking about the survival of the company. From public institutions want to transfer the entrepreneurial spirit to society, but there is a lack of entrepreneurial culture in our country. People do not dare to start their own business. There is no model to follow. There are not several generations of entrepreneurs as a model, generations that have done well.

Another striking fact of the study is that 42.4% of respondents do not know that there is a single payment option for unemployment benefit, a fact that can facilitate entrepreneurship with a business …
It is understandable that generic information on how to start a business does not reach everyone. But what has no pardon is that the unemployed are not informed that there are other options besides going to collect the unemployment check every month. But this is not the only example. The operation of the single window is also unknown to the citizen …

The one-stop shop was born to create companies. It is a comfortable system, almost immediate, and less expensive. You can save yourself going to the notary, to the registry … it facilitates that you carry out the procedures by the Internet. The majority of entrepreneurs do not know about it and continue to create old-style businesses. And taking into account that Spain is one of the OECD countries where it takes longer to create a company (46 days compared to 13 days for the rest of European countries that make up the OECD). This one-stop system can save us a lot of time. The service exists and works, but nobody knows it. Only 0.2% of entrepreneurs use it.

What kind of regulations should be modified to generate more companies

<br /><br />What kind of regulations should be modified to generate more companies

 

It is not a problem of regulations. One of the problems of entrepreneurs, precisely, are the regulations, laws, and obstacles. And of course, funding and institutional advertising, which does not work. There is no real incentive from the administration to generate business. Now they try it because they have realized that it is necessary. But what cannot be is that suddenly you throw everyone to be an entrepreneur. Not everyone is worth to have a company, without having a fixed payroll every month, working many hours a day …

What is the current profile of an entrepreneur?
In general, in Spain, right now, the majority are men with an average of 44 years.

And what qualities must it have?
One, very important, is the capacity for suffering. You will go through many difficulties to start your business. Pegas that does not make any sense and that cause many unemployed people to stay at home collecting the unemployment benefit and not set up their own business.

What kind of obstacles?
Especially administrative. When you want to start a business, banks do not give you a loan. They ask you for guarantees, properties, etc. For banks, everything is financial operations. They do not value the company. It’s like buying a luxury asset, instead of setting up a business that will generate wealth and future work. That’s why it’s so difficult for young people to start.

What helps or which routes are the best?
The most specific aid is given by the Official Credit Institute in its icodirecto line to encourage the development of entrepreneurs. They study the business model and decide who to finance and who does not. But, unfortunately, today 70% of loan applications are rejected … The rest of the aid is generated by the autonomous communities themselves, but they are micro-grants. For example, they grant 5,000 euros to pay the costs of the lawyer or to put the company on the starting line, but they do not guarantee its survival.

And most of them break …
90% of small and medium enterprises go bankrupt during the first three years of life- you’ve got lots of options. There is no one specialized in helping them to stay. Although I have to say that in this regard, the Chambers of Commerce are collaborating a lot with SMEs. 

And the private aid?
There are few private investors and there are not many venture capital funds either. The market for private investment in Spain is very small, and certainly, when someone needs 200,000 euros to generate their business, it is really difficult.

We want to start a business, where do we start?
For the idea, but let’s not forget the team, it’s the most important thing. The idea of business is molded little by little, but it is not immovable. Very successful companies started doing one thing and then, due to different circumstances, they changed. And I reiterate, the team that develops the idea is very important. For example, Facebook was not the idea of its creators. A good team took the idea and developed it in the most successful way. The same happened with the Apple iPad. It was not an invention of the brand. Apple took the patent and executed it in the most successful way, thanks to its team.

But, currently, for small and medium enterprises it is difficult to maintain a team. Most times you can not satisfy the professionals as you should or how you would like …
It is difficult to maintain the team, but by offering a shareholding in the company, for example, you can motivate your staff. A payment in shares is quite logical and causes the employee to become more involved. Google does it. Its first 1,000 employees own the company with a shareholding. That keeps them happier.

Would you define the Catalan society as an entrepreneur?
It is quite more entrepreneurial than the rest of Spain, however, in the last study we have done, it shows more need for external help to start a business. Catalan is more inclined to generate its own business. He is more enterprising, but he demands more help, more information, than the rest of Spain.
Will 2011 be the year of entrepreneurs?

Surely yes. 69% of jobs in the country are generated by SMEs and the self-employed and the destruction of employment has come from the SME, they have closed 350,000 companies. The only way to rebuild employment is by generating new businesses that, in turn, create jobs. Without a doubt, this year will not be that of the vocational entrepreneur, it will be that of the entrepreneur by necessity.

Rürup pension 2017/2018: Even more tax benefits for old-age provision

Rürup pension 2017/2018: Even more tax benefits for old-age provision

Friday, 15.12.17 , written by Christian Hafler The Rürup pension will be even more attractive for savers in 2017 and 2018 due to increased tax benefits. In particular, self-employed and good earners benefit from a higher maximum amount, which they can claim for tax purposes. But also the proportion of contributions to the Rürup pension, which can be credited to the tax office in 2017 and 2018, is increased. > Rürup-Rente: 2017 steigen Steuervorteile weiter an Rürup pension: Tax benefits rise to new highs

Persons who make provision for their age with a Rürup pension can claim even more tax benefits from the tax office in 2017, 2018 and in the coming years. For years, the percentage by which the saver pays the contributions for their private pension with the tax return already increases. In 2016, the share was 82 percent. 2017 is a tax deductible part of 84 percent . From 2025, insured persons can even deduct their contributions up to the maximum amount completely as special expenses from the tax.

Service: Reduce your tax burden permanently with the Rürup pension. You can find out which tariffs you can expect with a non-binding offer for the Rürup pension.

The maximum amount of Rürup pension increases in 2017/2018

In addition to the deductible portion of the Rürup pension increases the maximum creditable amount. By 2014, this was set for single people at 20,000 euros per year. Since 2015, he has been linked to the miners’ pension insurance . As their income threshold has increased, insured persons can declare contributions of up to € 23,362 in the tax return in 2017. Married couples even have the opportunity to register Rürup contributions of up to 46,724 euros at the tax office.

Taking into account the increased percentage of 84 percent, the tax office expects a maximum of € 19,624 for single persons in 2017 and € 39,248 for married couples as special expenditure deduction. By comparison, in 2016 it was still 18,668 euros, the year before 17,738 euros. The tax advantage therefore grows steadily.

In 2018, the tax benefits will improve again . On the one hand, the tax-deductible portion of paid-in contributions rises to 86 percent . On the other hand, Rürup savers can pay in total a higher amount. In 2018, the maximum contribution is 23,712 euros. Of these, the tax office takes into account 20,392 euros (for married couples 40,784 euros). Basis for the calculation is the contribution assessment limit of the miners pension insurance west of 96,000 euros per year and their contribution rate of 24.7 percent.

Tip: With a Rürup pension, you can build a reassuring financial cushion for your retirement. But too high costs of the insurer can reduce your pension. Anyone interested in this form of retirement should therefore compare several offers in advance.

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Rürup pension 2017/2018: For whom is the basic pension worthwhile?

The Rürup pension pays off as a pension due to the tax advantages, especially for people with a high tax burden – ie self-employed, freelancers, high-income workers and civil servants . Those who earn a lot can not seldom exhaust the full maximum amount of the Rürup pension and thus secure the best possible tax advantage. But even smaller contributions make themselves felt in the tax return.

On the other hand, lower and middle-income workers should check whether another form of pension is suitable for them . If there are many children, for example, the Riester pension is an interesting alternative. With it insured in addition to the basic supplement in addition child allowances. In addition, tax benefits are also possible here. However, they are much lower than in the Rürup pension.

Here you will find tips and further information on old-age provision. >

Christian Hafler

editorial staff

More news about retirement

# Question of the week: Will the pension soon be 69? # Rürup, Riester and Co .: Which private retirement provision makes sense? # Problems with the occupational pension: Soon less money for the insured? 06/22/2018 Question of the week: Which insurances play a role in the World Cup? 06/21/2018 Cash benefits in comparison: Which health insurance pays osteopathy? 06/20/2018 Technical progress provides many approaches to better mobility 06/19/2018 “Turnaround is not just e-mobility” 06/19/2018 Care and Health: Where will consumers pay more or less in 2019?

Cancel flight: How to get the costs back

Cancel flight: How to get the costs back

finanzen.de News always well informed

 

Tuesday, 05.08.14, written by Juliane Wellisch

The flight has been booked for months, but then something comes up. When they cancel their flight, consumers often only get reimbursed the cost, if that is the case. Wrongly. In some cases, customers are even entitled to a full refund of the fare.

 

 

Kunden haben bei Stornierung des Fluges oft hohe Ansprüche
Cancellation of the flight: Many providers refuse the reimbursement

There are many reasons for canceling a flight. Thus vacation vacations often have to be called off due to illness . Sometimes you have to do without a short-term vacation, because you are urgently needed for work. Serious causes such as bereavement in the family or an insecure security situation on the ground also lead to flight cancellations.

In particular, if the flight costs several hundred euros, a cancellation is doubly annoying. Because many airlines reimburse only a small part of the fare even with good reasons. In doing so, customers often have to pay the majority of the costs when canceling a flight.

Refunds in case of cancellation: Up to 100 percent of the fare back

If you cancel a flight, you do not have to give any specific reasons. Because when a flight is booked, a contract of service is created between the airline and the customer. This contract may be terminated at any time prior to commencement of the flight, as required by section 649 of the Civil Code. How high the rightful reimbursement of costs then depends, depends on whether the provider can reclaim the vacated space in the machine , or how the terms of the contract are designed .

One thing is for sure: Even if the seat in the plane is not booked by someone else, the airline incurs less costs due to the saved kerosene and possibly food and drinks. At least this savings must be refunded to the customer in case of cancellation . On the other hand, if the company is able to sell the space to another customer at the same price, the entire fare must be reimbursed.

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Flight cancellation: Accurate billing is often not performed

Even if the place is not further brokered, the customer is often entitled to almost the entire flight costs. In the event of a cancellation, the airline would have to break down exactly what savings were made by the termination, or what costs were incurred despite the unoccupied space. However, this billing is complicated and hardly a provider does the work. Therefore, usually the so-called 95 percent rule comes into play: 95 percent of the travel price go back to the customer, 5 percent can keep the airline to cover their costs. If the airline refuses to pay, the road to becoming a lawyer may be worth it.

Cancellation clauses are often not valid

Many airlines try to avoid the high cancellation costs with a reimbursement ban. However, as the journal Finanztest reports, these clauses are very often invalid. Thus, such clauses can only apply if customers are clearly informed when booking and this is also fair.

Especially with mediated via online portals flights this is often not the case . Often, it is pointed out that there is a ban on reimbursement in the clauses. However, if there is no direct link to the corresponding conditional work, or this is only available in another language, then the regulations are inadmissible . In other words, in case of doubt, the customer will be refunded the entire flight costs in case of cancellation.

Service: Many airlines reject the reimbursement in case of cancellation. With a good legal protection insurance you need not worry. The insurance pays legal and legal fees if the case ends up in court.

These costs will be returned in any case

While pure airfare may not need to be fully reimbursed, this will be different with applicable taxes and fees . This must be refunded to you in full by the airline when canceling your flight tickets . Incidentally, it generally applies that the customer can claim back the costs up to three years after the booked flight date.

Some airlines have shorter deadlines. Sometimes customers even have only one month left. Almost always a cancellation or processing fee is due. How high this is depends on the airline and the tariff booked.

 

 

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Surpluses in life insurance are falling: savers need to know that

Thursday, 08.12.16, written by Bernd Lauberg

If you have a classic life insurance policy, the return depends above all on the so-called surpluses. But many insurers need to continue to reduce their current interest rates in light of the persistently low interest rates. In addition to Allianz, AXA, DBV, ERGO and other providers have also cut their 2017 surpluses. What does this mean for insured persons?

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Allianz und Co. senken Überschüsse: Lebensversicherung im Sinkflug
Falling interest rates: This is how customers bring their money to the dry

Surpluses in life insurance will probably be cut across the industry in 2017. Following AXA, DBV, Stuttgarter, ERGO Direkt, ERGO (including old Victoria contracts), Nürnberger and Alte Leipziger, Allianz Lebensversicherung has now confirmed a reduction in current interest . For a total of 0.3 percentage points, Allianz’s 2017 bonus is lower. Instead of an interest rate of 3.1 percent, there will only be 2.8 percent in the coming year for classic life insurance. By contrast, the base amount for participation in valuation reserves remains unchanged at 0.6 percent, resulting in a total return of 3.4 percent . Perspectives reduce interest rates to 2.9 percent and 3.7 percent, respectively.

What do falling surpluses mean for customers with life insurance?

For customers of Allianz and other life insurers, the trend of recent years continues: Instead of high interest rates, there are gradually lower yields . While 0.3 percentage points initially sound inexperienced to the layman, even a small reduction in interest rates has a significant impact on the expected return at the end of the contract. Above all, savers who have concluded their contract only a few years ago and are still facing a long term, will feel this. Because not only does a portion of the expected returns be missing every year. The lower compound interest effect reinforces the effect of falling interest rates with each current year.

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What can savers do now?

If the returns of life insurance are no longer satisfactory, the termination is often not recommended . For the so-called repurchase value, ie the money that the insurance pays out in such a case, is usually lower than the contributions paid so far, especially for relatively new contracts. As an alternative, a life insurance can be provided free of charge . Then no contributions will be paid in, but the assets saved so far will continue to earn interest.

Is it still worthwhile to conclude a classic life insurance?

Anyone who wants to take out life insurance today at a young age rarely gets the recommendation of experts to bet on the classic variant. Insurers are increasingly withdrawing from classic life insurance business due to declining earnings. In addition, the guaranteed interest rate is lowered further. As of 1 January 2017, it is only 0.9 percent instead of 1.25 percent. For these reasons, many new customers are now more confident in unit-linked life insurance . However, in contrast to the classic version, this is associated with risks, which makes stronger advice necessary.

Here you will find tips and more information about life insurance.

 

 

Bestes Festgeldkonto im Vergleich finden

 

stoerer top zinsen sichern 1344 0 0

 

Verivox

 

Kundenbewertung 24.05.2018 um 15:29 Uhr Man bekommt so günstige Preise die man sonst nicht erreichen würde. Bei Problemen steht Verivos zur Seite und der Wechsel ist wirklich sehr unkompliziert
Verivox

 

Kundenbewertung 24.05.2018 um 06:59 Uhr Benutzt Verivox….und ihr könnt Geld sparen.
Verivox

 

Kundenbewertung 23.05.2018 um 18:02 Uhr Der gewünschte Wechsel des Gaslieferungen lief schnell und problemlos. Die angebotenen Hilfsmittel, wie z. B. Gasrechner, haben zu dem schnellen Wechsel beigetragen. Die Bestätigung des neuen Lieferanten kam sehr zügig.
Verivox

 

Kundenbewertung 22.05.2018 um 09:44 Uhr Alles war ok. Der Gasanbieterwechsel lief reibungslos. Leider rief man mich zu Hause an, um mir weitere Verivox-Produkte aufzuschwatzen. Das fand ich nicht schön.
Verivox

 

Kundenbewertung 21.05.2018 um 16:30 Uhr Der Wechsel dauerte ca. 2 Monate, das lag aber am vorherigen Anbieter der nach einem Jahr den Strompreis um ca. 50 % erhöhen wollte. Das Sonderkündigungsrecht/Kündigung durch den neuen Anbieter wurde nicht akzeptiert, ich musste dann nochmals selber kündigen. Das Ganze war sehr zeitaufwendig bis die Stromanbieter jedesmal antworteten. Durch Verivox gab es keine Verzögerung

 
 

Kein Risiko für den Anleger, Planungssicherheit für die Bank

Mit einem Festgeldkonto legen Sparer ihr Geld sicher an und erzielen dabei eine garantierte Rendite. Festgeldzinsen können zwar in Niedrigzinszeiten nicht mit wachstumsorientierten, dann aber auch risikoreicheren Anlagemöglichkeiten konkurrieren. Wer ein Festgeldkonto einrichtet, verzichtet im Gegenzug für eine sichere Anlage ganz bewusst auf höhere Ertragsaussichten. Immerhin liegt der Zinssatz aber immer noch um einiges höher als bei den beiden anderen vergleichbaren Klassikern: dem Sparbuch und dem Tagesgeldkonto. Anders als beim Tagesgeld legt sich der Festgeld-Anleger für die gesamte Anlagedauer fest und hat keinen Zugriff auf sein Geld.

Im Festgeld-Rechner auf Verivox.de ermitteln Sie schnell und unverbindlich die besten Zinsen und Konditionen für Ihre Geldanlage.

Banken verschaffen sich mit ihrem Angebot an Festgeldkonten Planungssicherheit: Ihnen stehen innerhalb einer festgeschriebenen Mindestlaufzeit Geldmittel für ihre eigenen Geschäfte zur Verfügung. Im Gegenzug gewähren die Banken den Kunden Zinsen, die über dem Tagesgeld-Niveau liegen. Sie können den Kunden allerdings auch nicht am Risiko beteiligen – deshalb fallen Festgeldzinsen vergleichsweise bescheiden aus.

Anlagebetrag festlegen

Banken bieten Festgeldkonten generell erst ab einer bestimmten Anlagesumme an. Je nach Bank können Sparer bereits 200 Euro als Festgeld anlegen. Da der Kontoinhaber diese Einlage anschließend nicht mehr nach oben hin anpassen kann, bleibt eher zu fragen, ab wann sich ein Festgeldkonto lohnt.

Der Anlagebetrag hängt auch davon ab, ob die Rendite zum Lebensunterhalt beitragen soll oder ob einfach nur die Sicherheit der Geldanlage im Vordergrund steht. Für viele ergibt sich die einfache Formel, dass geringe Zinserträge immer noch besser sind als gar keine.

Die Einlagensicherung

Die gesetzliche Einlagensicherung beträgt 100.000 Euro pro Kunde und Bank. Daher ist es sinnvoll, die Anlagesumme auf diesen Betrag zu begrenzen. Wer einen höheren Betrag anlegen will, kann ein zweites Festgeldkonto bei einem anderen Finanzinstitut eröffnen. Viele Banken bieten außerdem eine freiwillige Einlagensicherung in Höhe von einem oder sogar mehreren Millionen Euro an.

Minimale und maximale Laufzeiten der Festgeldkonten

Je nach Bank kann die minimale Laufzeit sehr kurz sein – sie kann sogar nur 1 Monat betragen. Allerdings liegt dann auch die Rendite kaum über dem Niveau von Sparbüchern oder Tagesgeldkonten. Meist können Festgeld-Sparer erst ab einem Jahr Laufzeit mit entsprechend attraktiven Verzinsungen rechnen. Je länger die Laufzeiten, desto großzügigere Zinsen bieten die Banken an. Wer besonders langfristig oder besonders hohe Summen auf diese Weise anlegen möchte, kann oft mit der Bank gesondert verhandeln, was den Zinssatz und weitere Konditionen betrifft.

Festgeld-Angebote vergleichen

Beim direkten Vergleich der Angebote untereinander sollten Interessenten möglichst genau die Vor- und Nachteile gegeneinander abwägen. Eine Faustregel kann so aussehen: Je länger die Laufzeit oder je höher der Mindestbetrag, desto höher sollte dann auch der Zinssatz ausfallen.

Ausschüttung, Gutschrift und Thesaurierung der Zinsen

Die anfallenden Zinsen kann die Bank auf ein anderes, ihr bekanntes Girokonto des Kunden überweisen (Ausschüttung) oder sie als Gutschrift auf dem Festgeldkonto belassen. Wenn Letzteres zur Vereinbarung zwischen Bank und Kunde gehört, sollte eigentlich eine Thesaurierung des Zinsguthabens vorgesehen sein: Das heißt, nach der Gutschrift soll auch das neu dazugekommene Guthaben mitverzinst werden, um den Zinseszinseffekt zu nutzen. Das ist aber durchaus nicht selbstverständlich. Wer eine solche Vorgehensweise wünscht, sollte die genauen Festgeld-Konditionen mit der anbietenden Bank klären.

Festgeldkonto vorzeitig kündigen

Im Gegensatz zu einem Tagesgeldkonto ist beim Festgeld grundsätzlich keine vorzeitige Kündigung vorgesehen. Die Banken sind nur in einigen Ausnahmefällen verpflichtet, das Konto vorzeitig aufzulösen. Berechtigte Gründe liegen etwa in folgenden Fällen vor:

  • Der Kontoinhaber ist verstorben und die Erben fordern Zugriff auf das angelegte Kapital.
  • Die kontoführende Bank ist im Begriff, insolvent zu werden.
  • Der Kontoinhaber gerät in Not und muss nachweislich Sozialhilfe beantragen.

Was passiert mit den Zinsen?

In solchen Fällen ist die Bank dazu verpflichtet, das angelegte Kapital vorzeitig auszuzahlen. Weitere gesetzliche Verpflichtungen gibt es jedoch nicht. Die zugesagte Verzinsung entfällt, gegebenenfalls auch rückwirkend. Die Bank kann bereits gutgeschriebene Verzinsungen streichen, schon ausbezahlte Zinserträge mit dem Haben auf dem Konto verrechnen oder zusätzliche Gebühren erheben. Die Verfahrensweise bei einer möglichen Kündigung findet sich üblicherweise im Festgeld-Vertrag gesondert aufgeführt.

Manche Banken erlauben freiwillig eine vorzeitige Kündigung. Angaben dazu finden Sie im Festgeld-Vergleich unter “Details zum Angebot”. Auch in solchen Fällen geht aber der Zinsanspruch normalerweise verloren.

 

Junger Mann liest Dokumente zu Hause vor seinem Laptop
 

 
 

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© 2018 – Richtig sparen mit VERIVOX, den Tarifexperten. Das unabhängige Verbraucherportal vergleicht kostenlos Tarife und Produkte in den Bereichen Energie, Telekommunikation, Versicherungen, Finanzen, Fahrzeuge und Immobilien. VERIVOX verwendet größte Sorgfalt auf Vollständigkeit und Richtigkeit der dargestellten Informationen, kann aber keine Gewähr für diese oder die Leistungsfähigkeit der Anbieter übernehmen.

 

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1) An offer from 1822direkt, Borsigallee 19, 60388 Frankfurt am Main: effective annual interest rate 1.85%, fixed borrowing rate pa 1.83%, term 60 months, 60 installments, net loan amount € 32,090, total amount € 33,609.00. Representative example acc. § 6a PAngV 2/3 of all customers receive: annual interest rate 3.99%, fixed borrowing rate pa 3.92%, monthly rate 589.81 €, 60 installments, term 60 months, net loan amount 32,090 €, total amount 35,388.60 €
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** Further information on official fuel consumption and official CO2 emissions of new passenger cars can be found in the ‘Guide to Fuel Consumption, CO2 Emissions and Electricity Consumption of New Passenger Cars’, which is available at all outlets and at Deutsche Automobil Treuhand GmbH at www .dat.de is available free of charge.

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